I installed IE 10 finally with the following steps:
Copy the whole winsxs-folder on another drive (e.g. mounted as E:\) with the cmd-command:
xcopy C:\Windows\winsxs\* E:\Windows\winsxs /s /i
Create a new folder on the second drive with the commands:
Extract all files out of the IE 9, 10 and 11 Setup.exe (possible with 7-zip):
- all extracted folders in E:\Packs\Windows\winsxs
- all manifest-files in E:\Packs\Windows\winsxs\Manifests
- all cat and mum-files in E:\Packs\Windows\servicing\Packages
Copy the folder of step 3 in the folder of step 1 with the following command:
robocopy E:\Packs E:\ /E /IS
Download the Runtime-Live-CD ISO-Image and burn it on CD, download under:
Boot from the CD and hit return, when the red start screen appears:
- assign the drives C: and E:
- delete the original winsxs-folder under C:\Windows\winsxs
- mark and copy the winsxs-folder of E:\Windows\winsxs
- paste it in C:\Windows
- copy all files of E:\Packs\Windows\servicing\Packages
- paste it in C:\Windows\servicing\Packages (if the files are already existing, skip all - if the existing files are older, overwrite it)
- unassign the drives, put out the CD and reboot.
Download and run the "System Update Readiness Tool":
Download System Update Readiness Tool for Windows 7 (KB947821) [February 2014] from Official Microsoft Download Center
Install the IE in the version you need.
Might be, the proceeding may be different from case to case - but in my case it worked.