Sorry to say, after I installed the patch manually, and I did the restart, the machine went into a startup repair loop.
The PC is about 800 kilometers away, so I had to get a technician available to have a look at it.
What do I do now?
Do you yet have any details about what failed?
The fix provided only altered .cat, .mum, and .manifest files. These will not affect startup, even if completely deleted, corrupted, whatever. Not possible.
But I will admit that a Windows Kernel Update could potentially cause a problem if failed: MS13-016: Vulnerabilities in Windows kernel-mode driver could allow elevation of privilege: February 12, 2013
To me, this suggests a deeper issue. Neither a 0x800B0100 error code nor your particular CheckSUR.log carry much risk of a startup failure or hint at a deep underlying corruption, both are relatively shallow and not boot critical.
Let us know if the normal stuff like Safe Mode, System Restore, etc., work out.
Additionally, if you can, extract a copy of C:\Windows\Winsxs\Pending.xml
and upload it.
We need to narrow down whether a file didn't get updated properly (a part of the kernel is missing), in which case we will copy it back), or whether this is a Configuring Windows/Reverting Changes loop, in which case we will try to revert the actions manually and take a deeper look at what went wrong. Here, you are lucky to be running Windows 7. It is much more fixable than Vista with the same problem.