See, solid proof that I haven't worked with the formulas in a while, I knew they were related, but I wasn't looking as to which one was considered combinations or permutation values in the formula, even though I probably could have figured it out by the capitals in their symbolic referenced letters within that formula if I was proposed that question lol. I really have no idea anymore though of how that formula works truthfully, it's been a while. Although I DID... program an application to calculate all the combinations of a string value and display them, not necessarily tell how many combinations though like this formula does from what I can remember (or assume) :lol: