Device driver, BIOS bug, hardware defect (see Significant Posts section below)
Significant Posts: Win 7 A Clock Interrupt... BSOD (101 Error) - Windows 7 Help Forums
These types of error messages are relatively simple, from a certain viewpoint: as frequently happens during normal processing, one core (processor) attempted to get the attention of another core, in order to synchronise their activites with respect to an operation that requires processor coordination. Described using "official" terminology:
An expected clock interrupt was not received on a secondary processor in an
MP system within the allocated interval. This indicates that the specified
processor is hung and not processing interrupts."
The trigger for the crash is the "sender/requestor" processor going "wtf? why is there still no response after almost half a second?!?" Those inter-processor interrupts (IPIs) are some of the most critical activity imaginable, and an unrequited IPI is absolutely lethal - hence the crash.
AMD procs had known issues which manifested themselves in this manner under Vista and Windows 7. There were/are many possible problem permutations, some solved through BIOS updates, and some necessitating fiddling with the "Translation Lookaside Buffer" (TLB), as per torrentg's suggestion to look up 0x101 and AMD and TLB.
Your real aim is to give yourself the best possible chance of discovering a software cause for the target processor to go unresponsive, and thereby avoid the most obvious conclusion - that the processor is periodically unresponsive because of hardware-level defects
I can confidently tell you that the browsers, apps, and games cannot be the root cause of this problem, even though I don't doubt your observation that the operation of certain software seems to more easily trigger the crash. What you're looking for will be in one of the following categories:
a) BIOS bug
b) a driver whose activity is causing the target processor to lock up
c) a hardware defect (temperature, voltage, dust, RFI, outright borkedness...)