Hello CKeeley, welcome to Sysnative!
Your CBS log is full of 0x80073712 errors which is never a good sign at all!
2013-08-09 13:57:49, Info CBS Failed to get CSI store. [HRESULT = 0x80073712 - ERROR_SXS_COMPONENT_STORE_CORRUPT]
2013-08-09 13:57:49, Error CBS Failed to initialize store parameters with boot drive: and windows directory: [HRESULT = 0x80073712 - ERROR_SXS_COMPONENT_STORE_CORRUPT]
2013-08-09 13:57:49, Error CSI 00000c10@2013/8/9:12:57:49.985 (F) d:\win7sp1_gdr\base\wcp\componentstore\storelayout.cpp(6636): Error STATUS_SXS_COMPONENT_STORE_CORRUPT originated in function ComponentStore::CRawStoreLayout::OpenCanonicalDataKey expression: (null)
ERROR_SXS_COMPONENT_STORE_CORRUPT has many causes and can be particularly difficult to track down - the problem either lies with the component store itself, or the references to the component store in the registry.
Firstly, I would like you to download and install the System Update Readiness Tool (SURT). Keep this file to hand as we may need it again.
Download System Update Readiness Tool for Windows 7 (KB947821) [May 2013] from Official Microsoft Download Center
When it finishes installing, zip up your CBS folder again and upload it here please.
Then, secondly, I would like you to tell me how large this file is: